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Prehistoric era
- Balangoda manawaya
- Hortan Plains and Prehistoric evidence
- The Iron Age
- Hydraulic civilization
- Clay and Pottery
Vijaya the Originator
- History of Vijaya
- Landing of Vijaya
Colonial Sri Lanka
-The Portuguese period
-The Dutch period
-The British period
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 Kingdomes of Sri Lanka

Kindom of Yapahuwa

Prince Bhuvanekabahu I, the brother of murdered king Bosath Vijayabahu made Yapahuwa as the next kingdom of Sri Lanka. He built rock fortress as his permanent residence and a temple for tooth relic on the rock. He conducted daily service for tooth relic. In 1298 "Arya Chakravarthi" a Tamil general came to Sri Lanka from Pandya kingdom of south India with a massive army and steals the tooth relic to India. This incident ended the eleven year reign of King Bhuvanekabahu I and also the Yapahuwa Kingdom.

 Kingdom of Jaffna

he Kingdom of Ruhuna was a medieval era Sinhala kingdom located in the south of Sri Lanka. The capital was known as Magama, near between modern Ambalantota and Tissamaharama in the Southern Province. The boundaries of the Kingdom of Ruhuna are Mahaveli River from North, and Kalu Ganga River from North West.

Kingdom of Gampola

Gampola was selected as the capital city of the island by King Buwanekabahu IV. Gampola is located near Kandy in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. The initiator King Buwanekabahu IV ruled 4 years. The last king of Gampola was King Buwanekabahu V ruled the island for 29 years. Even today Gampola is an important place as the longest sleeping Buddha statue in South Asia is located in Gampola, in the Saliyalapura Temple.

Kingdom of Kotte

The Kingdom of Kotte , located on Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte. This was flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century. King Parakramabahu VI (1412 AD to 1468 AD) was the last sovereign to unify the whole island under one rule. After His consecration at Raigama, He moved to Kotte in 1415 AD and named the Kotte as the newest Kingdom.

    Strategies of King Parakramabahu VI

  • Took the control of "Dahaata Vanniya"
  • Appointed his brother as a sub king of "Sathara Korale"
  • Ordered the prince "Sapumal" to get the control over Jaffna.
    He succeeded by killing "Araya Chakrawarthi" and taking Jaffna into contro

  • Prince "Ambulugala" was sent to up country to defeat count "Jothiya"
  • King "Jayabahu II"(1468 AD - 1472 AD) was throne the country (grandson of Parakramabahu VI)
  • King "Jayabahu II" was murdered by Prince Sapumal grabbed the throne as king "Buwanekabahu VI"(1472 AD - 1480 AD).
  • After king "Buwanekabahu VI", his son king "Parakramabahu VII"(1480 AD - 1484 AD) throne the kingdom

    Great poet monks of Kotte era

  • ven Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula
  • ven Waththawe
  • ven Weedagama Maithree


  • Kokila Sandesha
  • Paravi Sandesha
  • Gira Sandesha
  • Salalihini Sandesha
  • Hansa Sandesha

    Poems and other literature

  • Lowada Sangarawa
  • Buduguna Alankaraya
  • Gutthilaya
  • Kawyashekaraya
  • Parakumba Siritha
  • Saddharmarathnakaraya

Kingdom of Sitawaka

The kingdom of Sitawaka covered area including Kosgama, Ruwanwella, Yatiyanthota, Hanwella, Padukka, Ehaliyagoda,Kuruwita and Rathnapura. The landscape was hilly, boarded to Kandy by one side but no entree to the sea.The capital city (Avissawella) was situated on a sheer hill at the base of tricky hills rising around 300 m above the sea level and it surrounded by thick jungle. This was established after the Kingsom Kotte followed by the spoil of Vijayabahu in 1521. Sitawaka started many brutal battles towards to the Portuguese, who arrived to Sri Lanka in 1505. Despite its military successes, but collapsed soon after the death of its last king Rajasimha I in 1594.

Kingdom of Kandy - Mahanuwara

Kingdom Kandy is located in centre of Sri Lanka and it is 485m height above sea level. Kandy was the last capital kingdom of Sri Lanka Kings. After several battles, finally went under British rule in 1815 by a written agreement. Even though the historical name was "Senkadagalapura", public did call it as "Kanda Uda Rata". The Name "Kandy is a derivation of "Kanda Uda Rata" in the British colonial period. Senkadagalapura was established as a kingdom by the King Wickramabahu III during his reign from 1357-1374 AD. King Wickremabahu lead the throne in the 15th century (1473-1511) making Senkadagalapura" is the new capital. Until the 19th century, Kandy was the capital city as well as place to the Royal Palace and the Temple of the Tooth relic. Kingdom of Kandy managed to hold its independency despite fall of coastal regions under the foreign invaders (Portuguese, Dutch and English) by surviving from every attack due to the naturally protected mountains. Kandy finally submitted to the British in 1815 by signing an agreement with Britain at the "Magul Maduwa". The last king of Sri Lanka, King Sri Wickrama Rajasinhe was locked up by the British as a prisoner and send to India. With his capture in 19th century, the Royal family line which survived since 6th century BC (over 2350 years) came to an end. Kandy is also world popular because of the annual religious festival known as the "Esala Maha Perahera" or the "Kandy Perahara". In this event the Tooth relic of Buddha is taken in a grand pageant through the city by a royal tusker. The pageant includes traditional dancers, drummers, and flag bearers of the provinces of the old Kandyan kingdom, the Nilames (temple custodians), torch bearers and the grandly attired elephants. The ceremony annually held in the month of July, attracts large all over the island and many foreign tourists.
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